By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the twentieth century was once marked via a shift in how welfare-states take care of these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a for receiving minimal source of revenue merits - which, in a few nations, used to be complemented by means of efforts to assist recipients go back to the labour industry, specifically throughout the funding in lively labour marketplace regulations (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 eu countries (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this publication argues that this primary set of reforms was once by way of a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the focal point on paintings, brings very important ideas- be it the instruments used to aid recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation guidelines are introduced (ex., integration of profit and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we determine key traits.
The first issues the strengthening of the position of the marketplace within the governance of activation, that's obvious within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment companies. the second one, matters a flow in the direction of the individualisation of provider supply, noticeable within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline provider supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt main issue in Europe, has caused a brand new wave of reforms. while tentative in simple terms, our research issues to a caring pattern of the curtailment or merits (Portugal) and activation prone (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, one more deepening of the focal point on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Extra resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
Starting with national pilots in the late 1990s, the largest governance reform ever in Norway was enacted in 2005. The reform merged the previously separate state agencies of social insurance and employment services with local authority social assistance provisions and activation measures. The unification of service provision into a “one-stop–shop” setting has opened the possibility for broader programmatic offerings directed to eligible social assistance clients. This chapter aims to map these changes to welfare activation for Norway’s minimum income recipients (social assistance clients), analyze the main reform that reflects these changes, and discuss the extent to which the policies put in place are a true departure from the idealized workfare that was the dominant approach for this client group at the turn of the century.
In I. Lødemel & 18 Activation or Workfare? ), An offer you can’t refuse: Workfare in international perspective (pp. 105–313). Bristol, UK: Policy Press. , & Kellard, K. (2007). Reforming the public sector: Personalised activation services in the UK. In R. Van Berkel & B. ), Making it personal: Individualising activation services in the EU (pp. 127– 148). Bristol, UK: Policy Press. , & Steurs, G. (2005). Design and redesign of a quasi-market for the reintegration of jobseekers: Empirical evidence from Australia and the Netherlands.
A 1- to 4-year temporary disability benefit scheme introduced in 2004 provided an individual follow-up plan and targeted individuals with psychosomatic or psychological diagnoses such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and anxiety. For those individuals subject to this scheme, receiving the disability allowance was to be contingent upon the claimant’s participation in the preparation and realization of this plan, as well as in any medical treatment and rehabilitation offered (Kjønstad, 2007).