By John M. Ziman
Professor Ziman offers a coherent account of the various views on technology and know-how which are regularly studied less than numerous disciplinary heads akin to philosophy of technological know-how, sociology of technological know-how, and technological know-how coverage. it's meant for college students embarking on classes in those matters and assumes no unique wisdom of any technology. it truly is written in an immediate and easy sort, and technical language is seldom brought. it is going to entice scholars in quite a lot of clinical disciplines and enhances Professor Ziman's previous books.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Science Studies: The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology
In any particular field of research, this dialectic is usually extremely complex, and convoluted. Expert knowledge is needed to decide the status of the observational data, experimental projects, formal calculations and speculative hypotheses that are mobilized around new theoretical proposals, or that are called into question by an 'inexplicable' experimental result. The purpose of a specific experiment may be, indeed, to test a particular hypothesis; or the form of a specific hypothesis may have been dictated by the desire to explain a particular set of data, but this sort of analysis is seldom meaningful on a broader intellectual or practical scale.
102 on Sat May 04 20:07:26 WEST 2013. 8 Experiment Scientific investigation is not limited to the study of natural phenomena — that is, to the observation of events that occur spontaneously and are for some reason considered striking. Modern science is largely founded on the results of experiments, where the natural world is deliberately interfered with in order to observe the consequences. For some disciplines, such as astronomy or geology, whose significant events are remote and inaccessible in space or time, this method of investigation is not practicable.
Thus, for example, the death of this child was caused by its having contracted diphtheria, which was caused by infection with a specific bacterium — and so on. The notion of a causal chain comes from the world of everyday life: every child knows the tale that starts with the loss of a horseshoe nail and ends with the loss of a kingdom. This notion is readily generalized scientifically from particular events to universal categories, and often appears in the statements of scientific laws. It was a great step forward in medicine to assert as an observational regularity that a great many diseases were evidently caused by bacterial infection.